Celticsprite’s Blog

The Primordial Goddess
March 27, 2010, 2:37 pm
Filed under: Reviews

 Blog originaly posted on Love of the Goddess, all rights reserved.

I like to read articles on Witchvox from time to time, and I came across a wonderful article on the Primordial Goddess, that I wanted to share. I did not post the whole article, as it is quite long, but I will post a link at the end so you can read the rest. Please read the rest, its really a fantastic article! Enjoy:

As we know, the Sumerians developed writing around 3200 BCE, and that marks the earliest point when we might receive any direct information from people who actually lived during that period. However, since the Kurgan invasion occurred from approximately 4000-2000 BCE, nearly all of our historical knowledge comes from a chaotic, post-Kurgan, polytheistic world… indeed, the vast majority of it is later than the Trojan War, and comes to us only through the Greeks and Romans. My topic in this essay concerns the primordial Great Mother Goddess… a story that began long before techniques of writing came into existence. In order to gain an understanding of that distant time, we must rely entirely on archeology; the examination of whatever remaining artifacts we can find.

The artifacts generally include the ruins of buildings, possessions such as pottery and tools, art objects, grave goods, and of course human and animal remains. As a science, archeology is a relatively recent phenomenon, having begun in earnest only a few centuries ago. Naturally, early attempts to recover the artifacts were clumsy at best. Precious objects were often destroyed by careless excavations, improper preservation, and looting. The total number of researchers involved in archeology was relatively low, and methods of recording and transferring data were tedious and unreliable.

Modern archeological techniques have greatly improved. There are far more people working in the field today, and the capability of computers to store and transfer data has made it possible for experts located virtually anywhere on Earth to collaborate. In addition, new technologies such as carbon dating, electron microscopes, ground-penetrating radar and DNA analysis are providing us with a wealth of insights and discoveries. Yet what has remained perhaps the most critical problem facing archeologists is the interpretation of the evidence. All too often, they allow their own cultural biases and preconceived ideas to color their work, and seem to find it very difficult to admit that certain long-held and commonly accepted beliefs may be wrong. Fear of ridicule and damage to their reputation frequently causes them to resist change, until a clear consensus develops in its favor.

True progress, on the other hand, has always depended upon people with foresight, and the courage to take a controversial stand… and Gordon Childe was just such a man. Born in Australia in 1892, Childe attended Oxford and spent most of his life in the UK. During the course of his career of roughly thirty years, he completely revolutionized our understanding of pre-history, and ultimately became the single most influential archeologist of the early 20th century. Unlike anyone before him, Childe presented an overview of human development, rather than merely a detailed description of some particular culture. Through a series of over 20 books, he established three key concepts, which today form the basis for our understanding of the pre-history of the western world. First, Childe demonstrated that the origins of human civilization were in the Near East, a fact that had been somewhat in dispute prior to that time. Second, Childe demonstrated that, following the end of the last ice-age (circa 10, 000 BCE) Europe was re-populated by people from the Near East, who introduced techniques of agriculture, the domestication of animals, woven fabrics, etc.

This was the true beginning of the civilization of Europe. Finally, Childe established that an invasion of Europe by people from western Russia and the Ukraine occurred around 4000-2000 BCE. He referred to these invaders as Proto-Indo-Europeans. They were a patriarchal warrior society, who followed a violent male god, practiced human sacrifice, believed in an after-life, and conducted elaborate burials in large mounds of earth called kurgans. Childe’s work was based entirely on an examination of artifacts and linguistic evidence. However, since that time, a large number of new discoveries have been made which clearly confirm his findings. And in addition to his brilliant technical work, he will also be remembered as a man who made archeology more accessible to ordinary people, with such wonderful books as “Man Makes Himself” (1936) and “What Happened in History” (1942) . Another well-known archeologist who played a major role in changing the world’s views of pre-history was Jacquetta Hawkes. Born in the UK in 1910, she attended Newnham College in Cambridge. It was there that she met her first husband, Christopher Hawkes, a working archeologist. She began to join him on digs, and although not afraid to get her hands dirty, it soon became clear that her greatest talent was her insightful and humanistic interpretation of evidence, and her eloquent style of communicating.

While working in the UK early on, she took special notice of a pattern of goddess-worship at Neolithic sites. Over time, she began to focus on the social and cultural role divisions resulting from gender, and questioned the belief that men had always been the dominant members of a community, while women were presumed to have merely played a secondary role. Yet, it was not until Hawkes started to explore the fabulous legacy of the Minoan civilization of Crete, that she found overwhelming evidence of a society in which women clearly played a leading role… and indeed, a society that was incredibly successful, peaceful and artistic. Through a remarkable series of books, newspaper and magazine articles, lectures, and radio and TV interviews, Hawkes demonstrated the existence of early gender-egalitarian cultures and primordial goddess-worship to the public, in ways that simply could not be ignored. Although her work was controversial at the time, and was occasionally dismissed as “feminist fantasy”, Jacquetta Hawkes remained steadfast and outspoken.

Over time, new discoveries began to confirm her theories, and fortunately she lived long enough to receive some of the recognition and honors that she deserved. Archeologists Gordon Childe and Jacquetta Hawkes had the intelligence and insight to see beyond the mistaken presumptions of their peers, at a time when the evidence available to them was quite limited. However, if the archeological community needed indisputable proof, it was James Mellaart who would supply it… in an overwhelming quantity. Born in London in 1925, Mellaart seemed to posses a natural instinct for finding hidden ancient sites. Early in his career he made several amazing discoveries, including a large cache of bronze-age artifacts on Cypress, and a fully intact tomb in Jericho. Later, while wandering through the Turkish backcountry alone in 1956, he discovered the Neolithic site of Hacilar, which contained figurines suggestive of the Great Mother Goddess Cybele. Yet it was Mellaarts next discovery that would become the final catalyst for fundamental changes in the view of pre-history, throughout the entire archeological community.

In 1961, James Mellaart began the excavation of Catal Hoyuk, a site that would eventually be recognized as the most well-preserved Neolithic city that has ever been found. Here was a window into a world 9000 years removed from our own… agriculture, the domestication of animals, houses with built-in cooking ovens, pottery, woven fabrics, jewelry, mirrors made of polished black obsidian, stone knives and other tools… and best of all, from a spiritual standpoint, there were the shrines. A very high percentage of the houses contained shrines, and hundreds of carved figurines were found, of what undeniably was the primordial Great Mother Goddess, whom we now call Cybele.

Read the rest here: Witchvox: The Primordial Goddess

Blessings )O(

Picture courtesy of FreeWebs.com

Ostara, Celebration of the Goddess of Spring
March 20, 2010, 7:49 pm
Filed under: Meditation and Healing

  Blog originaly posted on Love of the Goddess, all rights reserved.
The spring equinox, also known as Ostara, takes place around March 21. It is a time where the light is equal to the darkness and from here on out the days grow longer. This sabbat represents a time for rebirth in nature and in our own lives. Ostara is the Germanic Goddess of Spring, another name for her is Eostre. In ancient times, this was a time of year for fertility, which is where the symbols of the eggs and rabbits comes from. Rabbits are known to mate many times throughout this season, and female rabbits are known to have many litters of babies during this time, which is why the rabbit is such a strong symbol for the fertility of Spring.

There ane many different ways to celebrate the Spring Goddess. You can do a ritual in her honor, plant seeds of beautiful spring flowers, or try to start a new in your own life. Another symbol for rebirth is the labyrinth, you can make one of these, and walk it to symbolize finding your center. A labyrinth can also symbolize the cycles of life and nature, since your life never goes in one direction, so to the labyrinth will take you on a journey to help you find your center. I tried my hand at making a labyrinth, and it can be alot of fun! You can make a permanent one or a non permanent one. Either by planting seeds in a labyrinth pattern, using salt to make the pattern so you can brush it away when your finished, or however else you think would be appropriate. I actually took a big king size sheet, and drew the labyrinth on there, then I painted over the lines to make them stand out more, make it your own and personalize it. I wanted a permanent labyrinth, so that way we could walk it every year at Ostara.

When walking your labyrinth, walk in a slow meditative state, and contemplate your life and any changes or rebirth you plan to do this coming year. Once you get to the center, you turn around and come out the same way you went in, make sure not to step over any of the lines. You can get a little dizzy when walking it, so if that is the case just stop for a moment, take a deep breath, and start again.

Here you will find step by step instructions for making your labyrinth : How to make a labyrinth

For your altar on the Ostara, you should have a yellow candle, spring flowers, green and yellow crystals or stones, plastic or real eggs to represent fertility and anything else that represents the rebirth of Spring to you.

For more information on Ostara check out: Goddess Vision

Enjoy your Ostara and your life renewal!

Blessings )O(

Celtic Tree Oracle : Alder – Regent Tree (3/18 thru 4/14)
March 18, 2010, 5:47 pm
Filed under: Celtic Tree Lore

Blog originaly posted on Love of the Goddess, all rights reserved.

Today starts the month of the Alder tree on the Celtic calender, it goes from March 18 – April 14. The Alder tree was a sacred tree to the Faeries, in particular the Dark Faeries who are very protective of the tree. When they need to leave their beloved tree they are said to take the form of Ravens. The Alder is known as the “fairy’s tree” in Celtic lore, so it’s good for fairy magic. The faeries are said to dance under the trees when they are flowering.

The month of Alder is a great time for magic concerning spiritual decisions, prophecy and divination, teaching and protection. It is also useful for finding strength from within and conquering inner difficulties. A great time for some soul searching.

Alder wood is often called the “wood of the witches”. It was often used it make magical pipes, flutes or whistles for use in sacred rituals. To honor the month of Alder, celebrate the spring equinox Ostara which falls on March 21.

Blessings )O(

Robin Williamson: The Inner Keltia Interview – part 4
March 14, 2010, 11:27 pm
Filed under: Robin Williamson
John: There is a Keltic Renaisaance on at present – one branch of that is a form of paganism which is strongly matriarchal. What do you feel about Keltic religion with regard to Druidism or Paganism, or patriarchal and matriarchal forms of belief?

Robin: Well personally, my religion is art, and I do regard it as being a Spiritual activity. But I have certain pagan…..leanings, if you
like. But I don’t adhere to the present-day operative forms of Wicca or any of those things. But the old gods have a certain meaning for
me, artistically…..and for real !. Also I am not entirely convinced
that there was ever total matriarchy in this country, although it is undoubtedly true that that was an element in the goddess religions.

J: I think a lot of the current matriarchal groups tend to overbalance things in the other direction, which is no better than patriarchy.

R: Yes, if one is really concerned about ending sexism, there doesn’t seem much point in letting it go the other way and saying men are all evil. I think the seres are part of each other.

J: I’ve been talking to a lot of people about renaissances in Keltic culture, interest in Keltic things. There was one at the end of the last century/beginning of this one – quite a pronounged one -but then that died off in the 40’/50’s. Recently there seems to be a new Keltic Renaissance. But people have said to me, “OK if there is one, it’ll just be another short-term one for about twenty years , then it will die out and there will be a great lapse again.” They said that there is not really time left enough for another renaissance and lapse, renaissance and lapse and so on, because they see the Keltic language, especially the languages, as dying out. If this renaissance, as it were, fails, we might not be in a fit state to attempt another ‘Revival’ containing genuine Kelticness.

R: Well they might get a lot of disagreement on that in Wales. Welsh is going from strength to strength at the moment, and Cornish shows every sign of making some sort of resurgence. Breton is stronger than it’s been in a long time, and as for Scottish Gaelic, I mean it was virtually extinct when I was a lad, but it seems now to be doing better than it was then.» I think it shows definite signs of a resurgance.

J: I was just wondering about the possibility of a Keltic Renaissance coming which would stick, which would last, catch fire and continue. There could be a resurfacing of something which could then continue for a long time.
R: I think it is true to say that civilization runs on ideas, not on bullets, and that culture is founded, usually, on aesthetic ideas, and that someone unleashes some sort of aesthetic force which eventually bocones a city. In the end, all you can detect in history are these markers left by people of vision. I mean you don’t see anything left of the wars….all that is left of the wars…..well the blood just -just drains away into the sand. But the statue with blind eyes is still staring across two thousand years later.

J: My ideas behind launching Inner Keltia were to promote this cultural, artistic, religious side, because I see this as being the most important aspect of Keltic culture, and also the most durable, and I think that’s where a lot of the primal inspiration comes from, from that realm, art, poetry, music, religion.
R: Very very true.

J: Whereas most of the Keltic magazines on the market up to now have dealt with politics, economics, language, various thing like that, which are all important, but for me they are not as important as the other ‘Inner’ side. And yet Inner Keltia will be criticized for that approach, it will be “arty”, “airy fairy”, “non-substantial”, etc……

Deirdre: “Out of touch with reality”…..which reality, I ask?!

J: There1s a Keltic magazine called Carn which in a recent issue talked about the shutting down of a steel smelter in the West of Scotland, which is really relevant, but….I mean….think acceptable, that’s talkable material for the general public, whereas the more esoteric things are not.

R: It’s peculiar how often in Scotland you could go up to somebody and say, you know, listen, here we are in the Borders, until the sixth century this was part of Prydain (Britain) it was Welsh speaking, and some of the earliest Welsh poetry was written here, and that would be such news…..it’s never taught in schools.

No-one’s ever heard about it, no one’s ever heard of Taliesin, no one’s ever heard of any of those people. Or what the Arthurian connection is to the Borders and why there is an Arthur’s Seat and a Merlin’s Grave and all the rest of it.

Let alone any connections Finn MacCuil has to the Southern Hebrides or the Island of Arran…..or Ossian or whatnot. And the real Gaelic side is buried even deeper, the real Gaelic stories are away to Canada and lost with the people who knew what the name of that knoll was, or what that rock in the river was called and why.

J: I believe it’s of importance, but what importance do you think there is for modern-day people, out there in the streets, to know stuff about the connections of the South of Scotland with Brythonic-speaking Wales?

R: It’s not very important to a lot of people, but it’s important to some, and it’s important that it’s not allowed to be lost, it’s important that people should be able to revoice some of these things from time to time. One doesn’t really think it’s going to be important to a lot of people, but to those for whom it is, it’s going to be extremely relevant.

J: 3o in a way you’re almost talking to the few?

R: Well, some things you are only going to be able to talk to the few about…..I mean, without being elitist at all, or without even wanting to be – I mean I’d like to be able to talk to lots of people -there are some things you’re only going to be able to say to a few. But they can be worth saying for all that. It’s worth having a go.

Robin Williamson: The Inner Keltia Interview – Part 3
March 14, 2010, 11:24 pm
Filed under: Robin Williamson

Deirdre: The trouble is, if you want to make a decent living out of any form of creative activity, you’ve got to become commercial, at least to some extent.

Robin: It’s almost an axiom that the better the piece is, the harder it
will be to get it across. Luckily that is not always true, some-times you can do something that’s really great and get it across, but it then has to retain a lot of communicativeness to be understandable by people.

John: That is something I feel ….. a lot of the Keltic Bards are famous
for their very involved poetry, which used a a lot of kennings, symbolic terms, which you pretty much have to be schooled in Bardism to understand.

R: Absolutely ….. well there is a Bardic aecret, there genuinely is a Bardic secret, and the reason it is a secret is because you can’t describe it to someone who doesn’t know what it is. What does it mean, I mean what are these people on about? I mean it’s like I’m trying to say in ‘Song of Mabon’, “There’s a treachery hidden in words and human love.” I mean, there’s no way you can describe to someone what that is, unless they know what it means, unless they’ re already aware of that treachery hidden in words and human love.

J: How difficult do you find it to incorporate some of these important but, to everyday people, obscure, ideas, obscure terms?

R: Well luckily, these things don’t have to be comprehensible intellectually, provided that they have word-music, melody, provided they have musical movement, harmonious content, provided they create a spell. I think these things have a charm of their own.

D: Do you think then that these things which you’re trying to express get through to people on whatever level they are able to understand them?

R: It seems to be so. I don’t think it matters, because I think that when you get into talking about pieces that are involved with myth and so forth, myth being a subjective thing, it means different things to different people. The pieces as I wrote them have a meaning for me – they might have an entirely different meaning to somebody elae. I don’t think it matters, because it’s the performance of them that is important. It’s the ritual aspect ….. it’s the actual doing of the thing that has meaning.

There are extraordinary depths in the Celtic Heritage – I think there ‘s a sort of Renaissance coming in Scotland and Ireland. I’m getting more and more passionately Scottish the older I get, you know, I really want to see Scotland awake. It’s been held under this dark waterfall so long that its fire has been quenched out. Victorian/Knoxian prudery has killed the passionate flower that it should really have been, and anyone looking at Scottish scenery and hearing the best of, say, Pibroch music, can see that there is undoubtedly a very wild soul there, which can still infect even the most mundane hearts with certain forms of •’xaltation. I’d really like to see Scottish art start to wake up to its (quote/unquote) “Celticness” instead of being quite so Tartan cimraick orientated.

D: Do you still miss Scotland a lot?

R: Well luckily I’ve been in and out of it a lot recently. But yes, I miss Scotland even when I’m here, the Scotland I miss is not here yet.

D: Are you still planning to move back here?

R: Oh yes ….. oh yes. But I think I will always be a traveller.

J: Some of the material you want to incorporate in your muaic/theatre at present is quite serious, involved with myth, involved with symbolism about meaning, about life, about seasons, about things like that, that’s quite a serious content…..

R: ‘Tree of Leaf and Flame” is that…..for better or worse that is what it deals with. But there are a lot of other things I’d like to deal with, including such things as humour, lighter things.

J: But even in the performance last night, there was a lot of humour. How much is that a natural expression of your character, or how much do you consciously say, “Well I’ve got quite a lot of serious stuff here, I’d better lighten it up a bit”?

R: Well I think in ‘Tree of Leaf and Flame”, I did that less than I’ve ever done in my life. I mean I very consciously perform, you know, but I think it’s a temptation to overdo that, and I think this was the least I’ve ever yielded to that trap. But I do think humour has a definite place…..it’s a marvellous thing…..laughter is very powerful. I like it! Ideally you should have both. Last night was presumably mostly serious, but I think it had its humorous bits.

J: Staying over here myself, I’m quite interested in how people in the States approach the celtic field. You know, there are a lot of Highland Societies, Gaelic Societies, Welsh Societies, and so on, in America. We tend to get get bad reports about them, that people are into them because of their name, because their name is Macintosh or suchlike.

R: There is that, there definitely is that, but on the other hand, looking on the more positive aids, there is a lot of really sincere enthusiasm, especially in music. For instance, some of the Scottish pipers in the States and Canada are absolutely staggeringly good. One of the best pipers I ever heard was a young American with a sort of German sounding name, from San Francisco, he was great. He was only about nineteen, he was a Pipe Major, and he’d been a member of the pipe band that won the competitions in Scotland the year before. Also some of the Cape Breton fiddlers are fantastic. So there is a lot of enthusiasm, which is very refreshing.

One thing I’d like to add: it seems that there has been a sort of pattern over the last few years in my own Keltic Path. The ‘Glint of the Kindling’ album was really about childhood and about growing up, particularly growing up in Scotland, and I then got into this whole thing about ‘Merlin’sGrave’ and the various connections of Wales to the South of Scotland, which I think are very important connections. Edinburgh really is the scene of certain very key events in early Bardic matter, and also in early chivalric matter. So we’ve got the Arthurian, the Chivalric, and of course that leads into the Masonic and what have you …..Knights Templars…..anyway, the next thing from there was, I got into the whole issue of Bardic and Provencal things, Amour Courtois -that’s what the ‘Songs of Love and Parting’ album was about. But I’m currently in a very different state again, having actualized a lot of that.

Book Review: Walking an Ancient Path
March 13, 2010, 10:15 pm
Filed under: Reviews

  Blog originaly posted on Love of the Goddess, all rights reserved.

I recently finished reading the book, Walking an Ancient Path by Karen Tate and I found it very interesting and eye opening. The first part of this book talks about the authors travels to sacred Goddess destinations around the world. There are many more than you might think and some are in places you probably wouldn’t even think to look. She starts on her journey to Egypt and then eventually makes it to Ireland, Crete, Turkey, Rome and Jordan among others. Each time she visits one of these sacred locations, she performs a ritual honoring the Goddess of that particular place. She really soaked in every sacred Goddess location fully. Such a life changing experience it must have been!

In the rest of the book, she basically gives a little background on the Goddess and herself. She explains how she became ordained as a priestess in Ireland. She also goes into detail about various rituals to the Goddess that she performed in California, her home town. She studied the way the ancient rituals were actually performed, and then implemented those ideas into a modern form of each ritual. She gives information on a few “temples” in the western part of the US, including, Nevada, California and Delaware. She is so incredibly involved in the Goddess community and such a Goddess advocate, that anyone starting out on the Goddess path should read one of her books. She has another book titled Sacred Places of the Goddess 108 Destinations

Check out her website here: Karen Tate

This book is a must read and I would recommend it to anyone interested in Goddess worship around the world.

Blessings )O(

Robin Williamson: The Inner Keltia Interview – Part 2
March 8, 2010, 2:46 am
Filed under: Robin Williamson
John: The academia world classifies ‘Keltic’ as something from various times BC to about 600 AD and that for them is the Keltic period, and it takes a big jump in their understanding to think that Keltic things have been passed on to the present day. Depending on the individuals scholar’s approach, they’re willing to see Keltic things flowing on. My personal view is that I take Keltic Culture back very much further than a lot of scholara do.

Robin: Quite, and I’d like to say also that I would like to take it into
the future, I mean I see it asbeing very relevant now, and also not racial. I mean certain elements which I think are Keltic I find in such people as Kandinsky, who has no relationahip whatsoever to Scotland or Ireland or the language movement.

DEIRDRE: So you’re really talking about the Keltic Spirit.

R: Absolutely.

J: With regard to your personal sources of inspiration in that field, how do you draw from the countries that you visit, whether it’s Ireland, Scotland, Germany or America? I mean when you’re in America, how do you get Keltic things from there?

R: Well…..where I am to me is in one sense quite irrelevant. I’m always where I have to be to do what you’re talking about. That has nothing to do with being somewhere in the world – it is not in the world, it’s in the heart.
But the other answer is that you can find places that seem to be specially significant tucked away in all parts of the world. I was at this incredible place in Cornwall recently called Modron’a Well – and of course Mabon being son of Modron you know (Robin’s poem ‘Song of Mabon’ has been published in Poetry London – Eds.), I thought och well, that’ll be an interesting place for a walk. I looked around and couldn’t find it.
I went back to the place where I was staying and asked if there was a well around there, and they said “Oh yea as a matter of fact there is”, and they told me how to get to it as I went back the next day, down this wee tiny lane to this big alder forest, a thicket of alder trees, and in the middle a little muddy puddle, a spring, with all the rags tied on the thorn trees, and next to it a 6th century (Or so) Christian oratory for the baptism. It was obviousaly still in use. What I felt was that people in really extreme, circumstances had gone there as a last resort to tie a rag on the tree and say “Help me in this situation, nothing else will do.” You really felt that it was not just a sort of ‘folkay I thing at all, it was something dating back to the most rootish Neolithic…..Megalithic…..Paleolithic…..lithic…. (laughter)

J: Obviously you have very much realised your aims, to a large extent, and your potential as a musician and a singer. Do you now wish to progress more into the writing field?

R: I’d like to try and do as many things aa possible, aa well as possible, in the time that I have left before death, I really think that every second counts. I’d like to continue doing these theatrical pieces very much ( Mabinogion;Tree of Leaf and Flame). There are a number of things that I’d like to do using the theatre and dance. But also I’d like to do some writing. And I’m really very much into the harp.

J: When you’re planning a theatre production, how much do you have to take a very tight control of production to make it correspond to exactly what you wish? Or would there be a time when you could just write a score and write a script and hand it over to a theatre company? Do you think there might come a time when you could perhaps do that in California and perhaps send it to a Welsh theatre company to do across here? Would you feel happy about doing that, or would you think that you should have a very personal involvement?

R: I don’t know, I’ve never got to the point where…. I’ve never become a playwriter, I’ve only ever written things for myself before really, and the dancers…..are really “pieces of muaic” I’ve written that Geoff Moore has choreographed. I’ve never really written theatre for anybody other than myself. It’s all very much in its infancy. I don’t know…..maybe.

D: Do you have any specific plans to bring other art forms into your performances?

R: No…..I honestly just try to take things one step at a time, and things seem to present themselves with a variety of possibilities, and I try to do the best I can with those possibilities. You see, what I’m doing now, it’s taken twenty years to get here, and I haven’t got there yet, but it’s coming cloaer to doing aomething I waa trying to do when I was sixteen or aeventeen. But then, I didn’t have the understanding, didn’t have the knowledge, didn’t have the abilities, the techniques, the connections. But gradually one acquires bits of those things…..

J: How much does running your own production – this record company, Flying Fish Records, that you’re on in America, how much does that aid you in what you want to do, rather than, let’s say, being signed on with one of the big record companies?

R: Well, big record companies aren’t signing on this sort of things, there’s not really any interest there in the sort of thing I’m trying to do.

J: I know quite a few other people who’ve pretty much had to form their own small record labels to do what they want to do.

R: It’s the old, old story – if you really want to do something interesting, you’ve got to find alternative ways to do it. The things that sell the most aren’t necessarily the beat. I mean the best selling newspapers aren’t necessarily the beat newspapers. If you make a survey of newspapers you’ll see that the really big sellers haven’t got any particular quality, except being…….. (Laughter)